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Research on Cold Water Immersion (CWI)

Below you will find a small selection of research documents addressing the use of ice and ice baths for sports recovery.


The information on this page is taken from the CET CryoSpas website, where you can find details and summaries of many more research studies. You can go directly to their website by clicking on the CET CryoSpas logo at the bottom of the page.

The FIFA Science of Football Summit (Wembley Stadium April 2013)

"How to prevent fatigue in football" session

Gregory Dupont of Université de Lille gave a very interesting presentation, which highlighted the strong correlation between fatigue and injury. He reported an injury rate that was 6.2 times higher in players who played two matches per week, compared to those who only played one. He also presented the findings of a review into post-match recovery strategies, which indicated the three major strategies proven to have a positive effect on fatigue and recovery are good sleep, proper nutrition and Cold Water Immersion. Below you will find the references of the publications of this research.


1. Dupont G., Nédélec, M., McCall A., McCormack, D., Berthoin, S. & Wisløff, U. 2010. Effect of 2 Soccer Matches in a Week on Physical Performance and Injury Rate

Am J of Sports Med 38 (9): 1752-1758.

2. Nédélec, M., McCall, A., Carling, C., Legall, F., Berthoin, S. & Dupont, G. 2012. Recovery in soccer: part I – post-match fatigue and time course of recovery.

Sports Med. 42 (12): 997-1015.

3. Nédélec, M., McCall, A., Carling, C., Legall, F., Berthoin, S. & Dupont, G. 2014. Recovery in soccer: part II – recovery strategies.

Sports Med. 42 (12): 997-1015.



Clive Brewer (Head of Strength and Conditioning at Widnes Vikings) held a workshop on the benefits of ice baths:

Ice Baths in Elite Sports – Theory and Practice.


In his workshop, Clive reported that his main objectives were to maximise fitness while minimising fatigue. His presentation included a graph showing the impact of CWI on the performance and fatigue of his players post match. Performance was tested objectively, using a jump mat, enabling comparison of performance pre- and post match. Please contact CET CryoSpas if you would like to receive the pdf version of his presentation.

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